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The main task is to implement ROS modules to gather data required to compute the optimal patrol strategy and then deploy the strategy in the environment.

Deadline | January 5th, 23:59 PST |

Points | 10 |

Label in BRUTE | P4-gt |

Evaluation | upload strategy computation in `strategy.py` to brute and show the rest to the instructor |

Resources | P4-gt resource package |

The environment comprises a closed polygonal environment $P$ which is threatened by an adversary attack. To prevent this attack, the polygon $P$ is being patrolled by $k$ homogeneous mobile robots. The adversary needs to continuously attack a spot on the polygon for the duration $t$ to penetrate the polygon. The aim of this assignment is to compute and execute such a patrolling strategy that minimizes the probability of a successful attack. Such a strategy comprises dividing the polygon into segments, and changing the direction of the robot patrol.

The path around the polygon $P$ may be divided into $N$ segments, where a robot traverses each segment with uniform duration. Therefore, there exists such a time-periodic function that each robot traverses exactly one segment per its period. Moreover, the robot turning action has a non-zero duration of $\tau$. It is recommended to use the turning time $\tau$ as the time unit, i.e., $\tau = 1$.

Figure 1: Polygon environment and the division to segments. Note that on the polygon segments are homogeneously spaced since the segmentation is based on a uniform division of time and some actions, e.g., driving along curves, may take an increased amount of time.

First, deploy the robot along the polygon, and compute duration both the duration of circling the polygon and the duration of turning the robot, i.e., the duration to change the clockwise to counter-clockwise motion around the polygon or vice verse. Then, the trajectory may be divided into $N$ segments so that each segment is traversed by the robot in time $\tau$. It it recommended to explore different robot motion and turning velocities, since this can make the division and subsequent strategy computation easier.

The authors of [1] show that in an optimal strategy the robots are always uniformly distributed along the fence, and that at any time all the robots are always moving in a same direction. Let $d = \frac{N}{k}$ be the distance in segments between neighbor robots. Then if $t \geq d$ the strategy is trivial since it is sufficient for the robots to move forward in an arbitrary direction as such a behavior will always intercept any attacker. Conversely, if $t < \frac{d+\tau -1}{2}$, $\tau = 1$, and $t < \frac{d}{2}$ the attacker can always selected a point on the polygon where the penetration succeeds. Assuming that neither of the trivial cases holds, the optimal strategy is a stochastic one that may be generalized as follows: for each segment, continue moving forward with the probability $p$, or turn all robots at once with the probability $1-p$.

To compute the optimal $p$, consider the segments between two neighbor robots. Note, due to the symmetric nature of the problem, this applies for all such segments. A Markov chain may be used to model the possible states and transitions between states in such system. For each segment $s_i$ in the original path, consider two states in the graphic model G; one state for being on $s_i$ and moving clockwise ($s_i^{cw}$), and one for moving counterclockwise ($s_i^{cc}$). Since $\tau = 1$, the edges of G are defined as follows. The robot direction change is represented by an $1-p$ probability edge, which leads from $s_i^{cc}$ to $s_i^{cw}$. Similarly, an $1-p$ probability edge leads from $s_i^{cw}$ to $s_i^{cc}$. Finally, edges with probability $p$ lead from $s_i^{cw}$ to $s_{i-1}^{cw}$, and from $s_i^{cc}$ to $s_{i+1}^{cc}$, respectively. Note, if the index of the target state of an edge would be lower than one or bigger than $d$, the edge goes instead to the absorbing state $s_{dt}$.

The probability $p$ may be computed as follows

Create a matrix of size [2d + 1, 2d + 1], initialized with 0s Fill out all entries in M as follows: M[2d, 2d] = 1 for i = 0, i < 2d, i++ do M[i,(2(i mod 2==0 ? 1 : -1)+i) mod (2d+1)] = p M[i,((i mod 2==0 ? 1 : -1)+i) mod (2d+1)] = 1-p end MT = M^t Res = vector of size d initialized with 0s for loc = 0, loc ≤ 2d, loc++ do V = vector of size 2d+1 initialized with 0s V[2loc]=1 Res[loc] = V × MT[2d] end return Res

The algorithm returns a list of values, one for each of the $d$ segments. The value denotes the probability of stopping an attack in the segment given $p$. Therefore, to minimize the probability of a successful attack, optimize over values of $p$ from 0 to 1. Note, thousand or even hundred values should be sufficient. For each value of $p$ compute the worst-case segment, i.e., the segment with the lowers probability of stopping the attack. Then, choose $p$ that maximizes this worst-case.

a) All segment probabilities for all $p$s; b) the worst cases. The selected maximum over the worst cases corresponds to $p = 0.75$; c) matrix M after first iteration.

To solve the problem, implement the following two functions, `generate_function`

and `optimal_strategy`

and upload them to BRUTE in file `strategy.py`

.
The `generate_function`

function is prescribed as follows:

def generate_function(d, t, p): """ Function to generate the probability of stopping an attack for each segment given some p Parameters ---------- d:int number of spaces between two closest agents t:int the time required by the attacker to breach the fence p:float probability of continuing forward Returns ------- f:float[d] list of probabilities of stopping an attack for each segmentexample behavior: input: $(3,2,0.5)$, returns: $[0.25,0.25,0.5]$.

The `optimal_strategy`

function has the following prescription

def optimal_strategy(d, t, splits): """ Function to generate the probability of stopping an attack for each segment given some p Parameters ---------- d:int number of spaces between two closest agents t:int the time required by the attacker to breach the fence splits:int a number of values of p from 0 to 1 to be created, e.g. for splits = 3, we will have p in [0,0.5,1] Returns ------- f_all:float[d][splits] list of lists, one for each segment, and in the list for the segment are probabilities of stopping an attack for all possible p f_min:float[splits] list of minimal probabilities of stopping an attack for each p strategy:float value of the optimal p prob:float the worst-case probability of stopping an attack given strategy

example behavior: input: $(3,2,3)$, returns: $([[0.0, 0.25, 0.0], [0.0, 0.25, 1.0], [0.0, 0.5, 1.0]], [0.0, 0.25, 0.0], 0.5, 0.25)$

The task is to deploy multiple robots. First, deploy a robot along the polygon and compute duration both the duration of circling the polygon and the duration of turning the robot, i.e., the duration to change the clockwise to counter-clockwise motion around the polygon or vice versa. Second, divide the polygon into segments and compute the optimal strategy $p$. Finally, space the robots equally along the polygon and deploy them while changing direction the patrol with probability $1-p$ for each segment. The direction change check may called, e.g., by ticks with $\tau$ period, or every time a lead robot enters a new segment. After a while, an attacker chooses a point on the polygon to penetrate. If one of the robots moves close enough to the point of attack, the attack is successfully prevented.

Note that for some settings, even with optimal p, the expected ratio of prevention can be as bad as 0.2.

The simulator provides and processes the following inputs and outputs, respectively

Message type | ROS Topic | Description | |

Outputs | Robot pose (nav_msgs/Odometry) | /robot{i}/odom | Robot pose provided by a simulator |

Polygon (geometry_msgs/PolygonStamped ) | /polygon | The polygon to be patrolled | |

Inputs | Velocity command (geometry_msgs/Twist ) | /robot{i}/cmd_vel | Velocities to drive the robot |

subject to
$$i \in {0,1,...,k-1}$$
where `k`

is number of robots in the simulation. Thus, the velocity command topic for the first robot is `/robot0/cmd_vel`

.

To run the STDR simulator

- launch the ROS node

roslaunch uir_tools_gt uir_gt_backend.launch [robot_n:=number_of_robots]where the optional argument

`robot_n`

specifies the number of robots in the simulation.

The strategy computing functions should submitted in Brute. A demonstration in STDR is evaluated by an instructor during the labs.

The path following module drives a robot along a given path by publishing velocity commands. The followed path represents a tour along the polygon locations and should be followed indefinitely. Moreover, an individual instance of this node should be created for each of the robots.

Message type | Topic | ||

Inputs | Path (nav_msgs/Path) | /robot{i}/path | Path to be followed by the robot |

Robot odometry (nav_msgs/Odometry) | /robot{i}/odom | Robot position and orientation provided by a simulator | |

Outputs | Velocity command (geometry_msgs/Twist ) | /robot{i}/cmd_vel | Velocities to drive the robot |

The path planning module plans a closed loop path over the polygon assigned to a robot, and changes the direction of this path according to the computed strategy.

Message type | Topic | ||

Inputs | Robot pose (nav_msgs/Odometry) | /robot{i}/odom | Robot pose provided by a simulator |

Polygon (geometry_msgs/PolygonStamped ) | /polygon | The polygon to be patrolled | |

Outputs | Path (nav_msgs/Path) | /robot{i}/path | Path followed by the robot |

[1] Agmon, Noa, Gal A. Kaminka, and Sarit Kraus. “Multi-robot adversarial patrolling: facing a full-knowledge opponent.” Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 42 (2011): 887-916.

To run the ROS nodes, it is strongly recommended to use either Ubuntu 16 with ROS Kinetic or Ubuntu 18 with ROS Melodic. Detailed installation instructions may be found on ROS web pages ROS Kinetic, ROS Melodic.

On the lab computers, ROS Kinetic is already preinstalled but two more libraries need to be installed before using it.

pip install rospkg pip install netifacesMoreover, it is necessary to source the main ROS setup script, which has to be done in each new terminal instance. Thus, it is recommended to add the following source command in your

`~/.bashrc`

file
echo "source /opt/ros/kinetic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrcor alternatively when running ROS Meloding

echo "source /opt/ros/melodic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc

Finally, on Ubuntu 16 the STDR simulator is installed using

sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-stdr-*On Ubuntu 18, STDR has to be compiled from source, which can be found at https://github.com/stdr-simulator-ros-pkg/stdr_simulator.

On Ubuntu 16 and 18 the ROS workspace is created as follows

cd ~/ mkdir rds_ws mkdir rds_ws/src cd rds_ws catkin_make # source the workspace cd devel devel_path=$(pwd) echo "source $devel_path/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc source setup.bash # Add new (custom) package to the workspace cd ~/rds_ws/src # Go to src folder in your workspace. ln -s [path to your package] # Create symlink to your package (or place the whole package directly to src). cd ~/rds_ws catkin_make # Compile the workspace. rospack list # Make sure that your pack is known. (Sometimes this is necessary to refresh ROS. ) # Now, you should be able to use the package within ROS (rosrun or roslaunch). # useful commands rostopic list # all current topics in the ROS system rostopic info [topic name] # show info about topic - publishers, subscribers rostopic echo [topic name] # writes msgs data on certain topic to stdout rostopic hz [topic name] # prints frequency of msgs on a certain topic rosnode list # all currently running nodes rosnode info [node name] # info about the node: published topics, subscribed topics # useful tools rqt_graph # visualize connection between the nodes (might not be 100% accurate) rviz # spatial visualization of the msgs rosrun tf view_frames # creates pdf with a visualization of the whole transformation tree (all the /tf msgs in the system) rosbag record # capture ROS msgs on selected topics (data can be played with selected speed afterwards) rosbag play [bagfile] # play data saved in bagfile

The main study material for ROS is http://wiki.ros.org/ROS/Tutorials. A special attention should be given to ROS message-based communication presented in http://wiki.ros.org/ROS/Tutorials/WritingPublisherSubscriber%28python%29.

courses/b4m36uir/projects/p4-gt.txt · Last modified: 2020/01/02 11:27 by milecdav