Warning

The aim of the lab is to practice function definitions using pattern matching and guarded equations together with the list comprehension.

Exercise 1: Write a function separate :: [Int] -> ([Int], [Int]) taking a list and returning a pair of lists. The first containing elements on indexes 0,2,4,… and the second on the indexes 1,3,5,… E.g.

separate [1,2,3,4,5] => ([1,3,5], [2,4])

Hint: Using pattern matching x:y:xs and recursion.

Solution

Exercise 2: Write a function numToStr :: Int -> Int -> String taking as input an integer n together with a radix denoting the number of symbols used to represent the number n (for example 2,10,16 for binary, decimal, hexadecimal representation respectively). This function returns a string containing the representation of n in the corresponding numerical system. For the representation use the standard symbols 0123456789ABCDEF.

Examples:

numToStr 52 10 => "52"
numToStr 5 2 => "101"
numToStr 255 16 => "FF".

Hint: The representation can be obtained by consecutive division of n by radix and collecting the remainders. The integer division can be computed by the function div and the remainder after integer division can be computed by the function mod.

Solution

Exercise 3: Write a function split n xs that takes a natural number n and a list xs :: [Int] and splits xs into a list of lists of n-many consecutive elements. The last chunk of numbers can be shorter than n. E.g.

split 3 [1..10] => [[1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9],]
split 3 [1,2] => [[1,2]]
Use the function split to implement a function average_n n xs taking a list of integers and returning the list of the averages of n consecutive elements. E.g.
average_n 3 [-1,0,1,2,3] => [0.0,2.5]

Hint: You can use functions take n xs and drop n xs. The first one returns the list of the first n elements of xs. The second returns the remaining list after stripping the first n elements off. Further, use function length xs returning the length of xs.

The function split can be written recursively. If the length of xs is less than or equal to n then return just xs. If it is bigger then take the first n elements and cons them to the result of the recursive call of split after dropping the first n elements.

Solution

The function average_n can be easily written via the list comprehension using split. The only caveat is the division operation involved in the computation of averages. Even though the inner lists after applying split are of the type [Int], their averages are floating numbers. So the type of average_n is Int -> [Int] -> [Float]. We can compute the sum of an inner list by the function sum and its length by length but the type system would complain if we want to divide them. To overcome this problem, one has to convert the integer arguments into floating-point numbers. This can be done by the function fromIntegral converting an integer into any more general numeric type.

Solution

Task 1: Write a function copy :: Int -> String -> String that takes an integer n and a string str and returns a string consisting of n copies of str. E.g.

copy 3 "abc" => "abcabcabc"

Solution

Task 2: The Luhn algorithm is used to check bank card numbers for simple errors such as mistyping a digit, and proceeds as follows:

• consider each digit as a separate number;
• moving left, double every other number from the second last, e.g. 1 7 8 4 ⇒ 2 7 16 4;
• subtract 9 from each number that is now greater than 9;
• add all the resulting numbers together;
• if the total is divisible by 10, the card number is valid.

Define a function luhnDouble :: Int -> Int that doubles a digit and subtracts 9 if the result is greater than 9. For example:

luhnDouble 3 => 6
luhnDouble 7 => 5

Using luhnDouble and the integer remainder function mod, define a function luhn :: [Int] -> Bool that decides if a list of numbers representing a bank card number is valid. For example:

luhn [1,7,8,4] => True
luhn [4,7,8,3] => False

Hint: Since the numbers are processed from right to left, reverse first the list by the function reverse. Then apply the function separate from Exercise 1 to split the list into the numbers to be luhnDoubled and the rest.

Solution 